India-Getting Acquainted With

BY Shubhi Mathur, 05 Sep, 2018

Global Jigyasa - India 101

Neighbouring Countries (by shared border)

Capital of India and Political System

The capital of India is New Delhi.

The government in India is a Federal Parliamentary Republic. The chief of state is President Ram Nath Kovind and the head of government is Prime Minister Narendra Modi.


Current Status of India

India is the second most populous country in the world and the largest democracy by population. It is also one of the fastest growing major economies in the world with GDP at $2.597 trillion (2017). India is also a nuclear weapon enabled state and has the second largest standing army in the world. However, it continues to face challenges like poverty, corruption and income inequality. Since 2012, poverty has been declining drastically in India, with Brookings estimating the rate of poverty reduction as 44 people per minute. After the economic liberalisation in 1991, India opened its doors to foreign direct investment. During 2017-18, the FDI in the country hit a record high of $61.96 billion. India has also become a software powerhouse of the world. With home grown IT companies like Infosys, TCS, HCL, Wipro, Tech Mahindra leading the way, the country is also home to multiple offices of tech-giants like Google, Microsoft, Amazon,  Intel, SAP and IBM. Internet permeation is also humungous in India with 500 million internet users.  Recently, the Narendra Modi government in India demonetised the largest circulating denomination of notes in a bid to address corruption. In 2017, India also registered its highest ever increase in the ease of doing business. Currently, India features among the top 100 countries for the ease of doing business. India has also gained notoriety for sky rocketing rates of crime against women in the country.In recent times, there are many wrong reasons which have brought the country into the global limelight including increased incidents of religious intolerance and mob lynching in 2018. Till July 2018, 27 people were killed across 9 states in India, according to the official figure.

Issues of International Importance over the Years



In the first quarter of 2018, India’s GDP growth hit a record high of 8.2%, overtaking China’s economic growth in the same quarter. It is projected that by 2050, India’s economy will be the world’s second largest, overtaking US and only behind China. With the implementation of the Goods and Services tax (GST) under the Modi government, all the 29 states in the country have become a common tax market which has boosted efficiency, growth and has also digitalised the economy.  GST and demonetisation were projected to be the initial steps of India becoming a cashless society. Though Indian economy is growing heaps and bounds, this growth is not inclusive. 1% of India’s richest; own 53% of its wealth. Income inequality is one of the primary reasons for the high poverty rate in the country. Amidst its economic progress, India is also pushing to gain more soft power by building diplomatic missions and cultural centres all across the globe and promoting International Yoga Day and regional cinema. Manufacturing has become one of the emerging sectors in the country. Under Prime Minister Modi’s ‘Make in India’ campaign, India is expected to become the fifth largest manufacturing hub in the world by 2020. Agriculture employs a vast majority of the Indian population (58%), yet contribution of agriculture to the total exports was only 12.26% in 2017.


Energy Security


India ranks third in global oil consumption after USA and China. Though the country is slowly developing renewable sources of energy, oil is still the primary source of energy consumption. India is under immense pressure to cut down on its energy imports as 83% of its oil for consumption needs come from external sources. Oil alone accounts for 31 % of India’s total imports. In 2018, Iraq toppled Saudi Arabia to become the largest crude oil supplier to India closely followed by Iran But following the United States sanctions on Iranian exports, India faces a dilemma on whether to cut down on Iranian oil imports, which will prove to be very difficult and expensive for India or face the ire of the United States. India’s unprecedented dependence on oil imports is destabilising the economy, `hence the country must boost domestic production and rationalise the heavily skewed tax structure to level the playing field of domestic producers.


IndiaPakistan relations


India and Pakistan share an intricate relationship based on common history, culture, wars, cricket and the impact of extremist activities.  Both countries gained independence in August 1947 from the British colonial rule. Shortly after independence, both nations were involved in territorial disputes over the state of Kashmir. The first IndiaPakistan war of 1947 ended with the intervention of the United Nations. Since independence, India and Pakistan have been involved in four wars and one major armed conflict on their border. Both these states have accused each other of human rights violations and harbouring fringe elements on the international stage. Peace negotiations have been attempted from time to time.  However, lack of political will, continuous ceasefire violations and terrorist activities have hampered these negotiations. Read more at

Religious Group Distribution

  1. Hindu 79.8%
  2. Muslim 14.2%
  3. Christian 2.3%
  4. Sikh 1.7%
  5. Other and unspecified 2%

  Links for Detailed Research

About India Issues


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